has been around since at least the 5th century. Tattooing
is accomplished by injecting ink into small holes made
in the skin. Most tattoo artists use an electrically powered,
vertical, vibrating instrument to inject the tattoo pigment.
The instrument injects pigment at 50 to 30,000 times per minute
into the second layer of skin (the dermis), at a depth of
1/64 to 1/16 of an inch. A single needle outlines the tattoo
and the design is then filled in with five to seven needles
in a needle bar.
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has been practiced in many cultures for many centuries. Body
piercing was often identified with royalty and portrayed courage
and virility. Egyptian pharaohs pierced their navels as a
rite of passage. Roman soldiers pierced their nipples to show
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